Oracle is able to join tables using the LIKE opertaor.
a_Table.a_Field LIKE '%' || b_Table.b_Field || '%';
The LIKE oprator works in combination with wildcards ('%').
The above SQL will work fine for text based data types like varchar. I've never tested it for other data types.
Then on the contrary: Would it make sence to join other types than text based types using LIKE? Most likely not.